Improving tone and tuning

In today’s workshop we worked on tone and tuning. We started off by looking at our instruments.

Aspects of the fiddle which can affect tone/tuning

    • Old strings
    • Quality of the instrument
    • Set-up of the instrument, esp soundpost
    • Damage to the instrument

What might cause a fiddle to go out of tune

    • Passage of time
    • Change of humidity
    • Change of temperature
    • New strings
    • Fiddle being knocked/dropped
    • Damaged instrument

If you want to be able to play in tune with more confidence, it’s important to tune your fiddle every time before you play, and to check the tuning regularly while you’re playing as well.
Find out how to tune your fiddle.

People who can play confidently in tune have learnt a number of skills:

  • Hearing what the in tune notes should sound like
  • The ability to have the hand in the same place on the neck of the fiddle each time they play
  • Familiarity with different hand ‘shapes’ that will place the fingers in the correct position to play the notes in tune
  • Familiarity with the sound of the open strings when they are in tune, so they can quickly identify when any string needs to be tuned

Learning to hear what in-tune notes sound like

The first step to being able to play in tune is to learn to hear what an in tune note sounds like. If you’re not sure what the pitch of an individual note should be, it will be impossible to tell if your tuning is OK while you’re playing.

There are several things you can do to start to train your ear to hear pitch more accurately:

  • Learning to listen while you’re playing. We tried playing a ;long open note, then playing it focusing on listening, then playing it with our eyes closed and focusing on listening. The less distractions you have from listening to your own playing, the more detail you will be able to hear.
  • Recording and listening back, paying attention to the tuning.
  • Playing chords with (in tune) open strings to aid hearing in/out of tune notes.
  • Using a tuner to find the pitch, then playing the note and listening until we have the sound of the note. lift the finger, then try to find the note in tune, using the note you hear in your head. Check with the tuner if you have it in tune. Repeat as often as needed to get the in tune note into your head.

We tried playing up the first few notes of the D scale. When we played the G (3rd finger) we also played the open G string below it, forming and octave chord. It’s fairly easy to hear when a note is out of tune with the note an octave below. What tends to happen when we’re learning is that as the fingers go down, if we play notes slightly out of tune we are unable to hear that they’re not in tune. So imagine someone who is learning to play the fiddle, playing the first 4 notes of the scale of D. They hear the open D, which is in tune (assuming the fiddle is in tune!). The first finger goes down to play the E. If this note is slightly out of tune, they don’t notice it. So their ear hears the E as being  in tune, and as the second finger goes down, they’re hearing the F# note relative to the previous note. If this pattern continues, by the time they play the G it can be significantly out of tune, without it sounding out of tune to an inexperienced ear. Plying the chord with the 3rd finger G and the octave-down open G string will help reveal if this is an issue in your own playing.

Learning hand shapes and relative positions

A fiddler's left hand
Photo ©Ros Gasson

It’s important to get into the habit of having your left hand in the same place on the neck of the fiddle each time you pick it up. If the hand is slightly further up the neck than usual, you will need to put your hand into slightly different shapes to play the notes in tune. Learning the relative hand shapes needed to get each finger in the correct position to play the notes in tune takes time, but can be learnt through repetition.

We learnt the mazurka ‘Capitaine’ in the workshop.

More tips on learning to play in tune

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Tone and tuning

Tone and tuning

Today’s workshop focussed on tone and tuning – looking at how to tune the fiddle, learning to listen to the sound we’re making, and to listen to others, how to learn to hear what ‘in tune’ sounds like, how to create a full tone on the fiddle, and how the resonance of the fiddle is affected by tuning.

Learning how to tune a fiddle by ear

We went through the steps of tuning a fiddle by ear. We started off by tuning our A string to an electronic tuner. Once you are confident with tuning by ear, you will be able to tune your A string to another instrument, or a pitch pipe. Before we started trying to tune the D string, we held the fiddle under the chin, and using the left hand, loosened the fine adjuster to make the D flat. This can feel awkward to start with – you may not be sure which way you need to turn the fine tuner, as everything will feel back to front. but it gets you familiar with using your left hand to turn the adjuster without any other distractions. Loosening the string before you try to tune by ear means you are always going to be tuning the note from flat, up to the correct pitch. This way, you will be hearing the same process each time you tune.

Holding the fiddle to tune it by ear
Photo ©Ros Gasson

Once you’ve done this, you can use the bow in your right hand to play the open D and open A together, using long bow strokes. As you play, you can use your left hand to tune up the D string, while listening to the pitch in relation to the tuned A string. When you first try this, if you’ve never tried to hear the in tune note in this way, you may well be unsure when the D string is in tune. Make your best guess, and then use an electronic tuner to check if you have it right or not. If the D string pitch is out, it’s worth tuning it using the tuner, then playing the chord of the open A & D again. Doing this with your eyes shut can help with really focusing on the sound the 2 strings make when they are in tune. Then loosen the D string adjuster again, and try to re-tune it again by ear. It may seem obvious, but if you can’t hear what the in tune note sounds like, it will be impossible to tune the instrument by ear. Equally, just because you can’t hear it now, it doesn’t mean that it’s not possible to learn to do so. Going through the same steps each time you tune the fiddle, and always trying by ear, then once you’re done, checking the tuning with the electronic tuner, will help to train you rear to hear the how the ‘in tune’ notes should sound. Once you’ve got this, you can tune the G string by playing it with the tuned D string, and then the E string by playing it with the A string. Follow the link to see more tips for tuning your fiddle.

You’ll find that learning to tune your fiddle by ear, in training you to hear the note being in tune, will also help with learning to hear whether the fingered notes you play are in tune.

Hearing whether an individual string is in tune is easier if the note is really resonating. There’s a balance between the bow making a strong connection with the string, and being light enough to allow the string to resonate. A heavily handled bow will result in a ‘dead’ sound to the notes produced. If the bow hairs don’t really connect with the string, the sound will be erratic and thin.

Moving from playing ‘mechanically’ to focusing on the sound of the fiddle

When you start to learn to play the fiddle, there’s a huge amount to take in – while you’re tussling with how to hold the bow, and how to keep it perpendicular to the strings throughout the bow stroke, you’re also trying to play in tune, and to work on creating a pleasing tone with the instrument. And on top of this, for most learners, they will also be trying to learn tunes as they go, remembering the tune, and working out what order to place the fingers to play it.

It’s no wonder that many beginners end up tense and playing in a very mechanical fashion. With all the concentration required, relaxing and getting in to the flow of the music can seem an impossible step. As it takes a lot of playing to get a grasp of the mechanics of playing, many people find that the tension is an inbuilt habit of their playing. One thing that regularly happens in the early stages of learning is that the payer looks at their fiddle – working out where the fingers and bow need to go. This focus on visual clues can quickly become an ingrained habit. And it’s a habit that often gets in the way of really listening closely to the sound you are making as you play – the brain struggles to concentrate well on both visual and auditory input at the same time. If you can begin to focus more on listening rather than looking, you’ll find that you are able to gain valuable feedback on the effects of your playing habits. And focusing on the sound also begins to allow the subconscious to take over control of the mechanics of playing, allowing the player to focus on the quality of your music, ad how you want it to sound. For this reason, I often suggest people try things out with their eyes shut, as it will push them to focus on listening rather than looking.

We tried out playing an open A to get the string really resonating. Then we played a short phrase on the E string (ef#gaagf#e), focusing purely on the quality of the sound we were making individually as we played. After this we tried having one person playing the same phrase in a certain style, then one other person joining in with them to play in the same way. If you’re trying this, it is helpful for the person who is trying to follow to close their eyes, so they can really focus on the sounds they’re hearing.

We learnt the slow air Ross Memorial Hospital by Phil Cunningham.

 

Playing the fiddle in tune

We tried out playing some long slow notes in the arpeggio of D. We checked our fiddles were still in tune before doing this exercise. With four people sitting in a circle, we had one person playing each of the notes in the arpeggio (D F# A and top D). Starting with one player playing the open D string, the next person round the circle played the F#, the next person played the open A, and the last person played the top D. So round the circle, alternate notes are being played on the open string, and should automatically be in tune. The 2 people  playing fingered notes have someone on either side playing an open-stringed note. We played the same note for a while, focusing on getting the notes blending and harmonising together. Once we had this, we all moved to the next note up the arpeggio (with the person who was playing the top D moving on to the bottom open string D). If you don’t have other people to play with, you can do this exercise all on one fiddle, by playing chords as you go. The chord sequence would be:

D/A (both open strings)

F#(2nd finger on D string)/A (open string)

A/D (both open strings)

D/D (3rd finger on A string)

When you’re playing the F#/A or D/D combination, focus on listening to whether the fingered note is really in tune and harmonising with the open string.

Connecting the bow with the string

We tried out placing the frog end of the bow on the D string. Letting the weight of the arm sit on the bow to dig the bow into the string, we pulled the bow downwards. Initially nothing seems to happen, as the stickiness of the rosin keeps the bow on the string as the string is being pulled sideways. There’s a sudden moment where the downward pressure releases the string from the bow, and the string starts to vibrate, creating a sound. We played around with keeping the bow heavily in contact with the string (which stops the string resonating), and lightening the bow stroke, or lifting the bow clear of the string, both of which allow the string to resonate.

Names of the parts of a fiddle bow
Photo ©Ros Gasson

Tuning

Tuning

Tonight we focused on our tuning. We started off by playing a G scale, played in lower octave. We played long slow notes, concentrating on blending and playing in tune with the others around us. Then we did the same thing playing the G scale in the upper octave. We played both octaves together, with alternate people round the room playing each octave, so we could hear our own sound more clearly. We followed this by playing both octaves of the G scale with the players in between playing the G scale in harmony. the we added in a couple of people playing an open G drone. The fiddlers playing drone worked on tone, and keeping smooth transitions between down and up bows, while those playing the scale and harmony were focusing on playing in tune.

We played the G arpeggio in both octaves, to identify the notes – G,B, D and G. Then we created a plucked riff, using just the notes from the arpeggio. One person started with a 4 beat riff, then each person round the circle added their own riff on top. We tried the same thing again, using bowed notes from the scale of G.

We played Sitting in the Stern of a boat, thinking about tuning

Then we moved into the large room, without our fiddles, and did a short Interplay exercise. We started off by walking around the room, exploring the space. Then we tried either walking or stopping, so we had 2 choices. We added in walking fast or slow, and played around with these options. The we added in the option of following what someone else was doing. This was an easy way to explore some of the options that are open to us when we start improvising with music.

Playing around with walking

We returned to our fiddles and tried a new riff, with each person in the circle adding to the basic starting riff. We tried stopping for 4 beats, then starting the riff again – that took a bit of concentration if your own riff didn’t start on the first of the 4 beats. People also tried following what someone else was playing, then varying it. We fed back in pairs, then to the group.

We played through Sitting in the Stern of a Boat again, and also had time to play Young Betty before heading off to the pub.

Next week is the last week of term.

 

 

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